TEFL Methodology: Teacher Talking Time & Student Talking Time

TEACHER TALKING TIME

STUDENT TALKING TIME

 

TTT - Teacher Talking Time - the amount of time during which the teacher talks in a class

STT - Student Talking Time - the amount of time during which the student talks in a class

 

The balance of TTT and STT depends on:

 

  • type of a lesson
  • type of activities
  • level of achievement
  • size of the class
  • motivation
  • how much T needs to control
  • personalities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTT is greater than STT when:

 

  • T presents, clarifies, corrects
  • T sets up activities and gives instructions
  • T provides input (e.g. tells a story)
  • in casual conversations

 

 

 

 

 

Positives of TTT:

 

  • Ss develop listening skills
  • Ss grasp new vocabulary in context

 

 

 

Negatives of TTT:

 

  • Ss don’t speak much
  • Ss may become demotivated
  • language used for instructions may be not understood

 

 

 

 

How to avoid unnecessary TTT:

 

  • give instructions below the Ss’ level
  • avoid running commentaries
  • be economic with words
  • use visual aids and gestures
  • don’t repeat yourself unless necessary
  • don’t automatically echo Ss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to encourage STT:

 

  • speak English yourself
  • praise
  • use warm-ups
  • use visual aids and gestures
    • monitor group work and remind Ss to use English
    • place yourself near to the “English-resistant” group
    • set time limit for performing tasks
    • start with controlled activities
    • discuss reasons for speaking English
    • ask Ss to try to translate your instructions










Bibliography

Bartram, M. and Walton, R. 1991. Correction. Mistake Management. Language Teaching Publications: 1991.

Brumfit, C. 1994. Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Byrne, D. 1990. Teaching Oral Skills. Harlow: Longman.

Byrne, D. 1990b. Teaching Writing  Skills. Harlow: Longman.

Harmer, J. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching.  Harlow:  Longman.

Ur, P. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 


 

 

 

 

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